Remembering the Forty Five

Trophée d'Auguste 4Trophée d’Auguste à La Turbie overlooks the French Riviera.

Between 25 and 14 BC the Alps were conquered by Emperor Augustus.  Situated at the frontier of Gaul, the trophy dedicated to the subjugation of Forty Five tribes was created from 7 – 6 BC.  Still a prominent monument in the landscape 2000 years later, it was then a symbol of Imperial dominance.  Yet when it was constructed it required legitimacy from a mythical past, perhaps to evoke demi-god like status upon the Emperor, deliberately situated in part of a landscape associated with the journeys of Hercules (Heracles Monoikos), referred by some as the ‘Heraclean Way’.

Trophée d'Auguste 1 The site was remodeled in the Medieval period as a fortress, which was inhabited to 1705, at which point it was largely dismantled to provide stone for the construction of the adjacent village.

Trophée d'Auguste 2In 1913 consolidation and reconstruction with remains from the site (anastylosis) commenced.

Trophée d'Auguste 3This process continued in 1934 by Jules Formigé but with more significant reconstruction with new materials. To the extent on the west side a marble slab (17.45 m x 2.66 m) was re-created, in part from original fragments found at the site, and based on an account of the original transcription in Pliny the Elders Naturalis Historia. 

It reads:

To the Emperor Caesar, Son of Divus Augustus, Pontifex Maximus, Imperator fourteen Times, and invested with the Authority of the Tribune seventeen Times : the Senate and People of Rome : For that under his Conduct and Auspices, all the Alpine Nations which reached from the Upper Sea to the Nether, were reduced under the Empire of the People of Rome. The Alpine Nations subdued:  Triumpilini, Camuni, Vennonetes, Isarci, Breuni, Naunes, and Focunates. Of the Vindelici four Nations: the Consuanetes, Virucinates, Licates, and Catenates. The Abisontes, Rugusce, Suanetes, Calucones, Brixentes, Lepontii, Viberi, Nantuates, Seduni, Veragri, Salad, Acitavones, Medulli, Uceni, Caturiges, Brigiani, Sogiontiiy Ebroduntii, Nemaloni, Edenates, Esubiani, Veamini, Gallitce, Triulatti, Ectini, Vergunni, Eguituri, Nementuri, Oratelli, Nerusivelauni, Suetri.

Names of peoples long forgotten by most…

Monaco GoatThe site however overlooks Monaco,

its name derived in antiquity from Heracles Monoikos

More importantly, perhaps, the Victory Monument towers above the site of Oppidum du Mont des Mules.  The site of the Ligurian fortification created perhaps about 250 BC which would have been subjugated during the campaign of Emperor Augustus.Oppida BuildStill the stone ramparts, of this tribal center, stand.  An alternative claim

on the landscape

from the Roman dominance


The lines of the ramparts can still be


Oppidum du Mont De Mules 1Dressed blocks showing the scale of what was once before.

RampartQuarried from the hill top, reconfigured, bounded in stone.

Oppidum du Mont De Mules 2Its ramparts, so close, as its wider landscape, to still be part of Monaco below.

Oppidum du Mont De Mules 3But go off the path, and you can find gestures which evoke different views of the world.

Offerings 1 Offerings 2   Not simply one stone, embellished as a tribal head.

Rather a component of a bigger piece, a cairn with other stones embellished.

The individual pieces expressed in different terms but together creating a visible statement of unity.

Offerings 3One had a stenciled profile of a building, and I wonder what the hidden faces of other




But then from the view point at Oppidum du Mont des Mules,

another world

was revealed


Way Below…Casino de Monte-Carlo,

shaken and stirred,

I reflected on the

forty five tribes.


The visit to these sites was part of a study tour to the Maritime-Alps which followed the salt routes from the coast to the inland mountainous landscapes.

Further information:

Trophée d’Auguste à La Turbie

Pliny’s Natural History For the 45 tribe passage quoted above see page 192-193

Oppidum du Mont des Mules

Via Julia Augusta

Monaco Museum of Prehistory

Old SignageOlder Interpretive Plan of Oppidum du Mont Des Mules.

Sign of the TimesRecent Interpretive Signage of Le Trophée d’Auguste

How times change !


Memory Sculpture

There Was No Need Of Celtic Cross

Or Sculptors Art for Me

To Wake Membrance of the Past

Or Turn My Thoughts To Thee…

DSC_0138McLaren MonumentMcLaren Bronze

Bronze Flow———————————————————————————————————————

The text above is from Priscilla McLaren for her husband Duncan McLaren upon the memorial overlooking Loch Awe.  The memorial sits at the mouth of Inverstrae, upon the footings of a longhouse, where he stayed for two years when a boy: ‘He was born poor, and never forgot or strove to conceal the fact’ (Mackie 1888 v1, 8).

McLaren MonumentPriscilla McLaren was founder of the Scottish division of the National Society for Women’s Suffrage.  Duncan McLaren was a liberal reformer who was elected Lord Provost of Edinburgh and then served as MP for Edinburgh.   Further details of Priscilla McLaren (1815 – 1906) and Duncan McLaren (1800-1886) can be found via archives hub.  The engraving of the McLaren monument is from the 1888 ‘The Life and Work of Duncan McLaren’ by John Beveridge Mackie, which can be found at Archive Org.

The McLaren monument is an exquisite piece of sculpture but is clearly deteriorating with conservation management issues.  It was produced by Mitchell Wilson architects of Edinburgh and made by W Beveridge, Sculptor, Edinburgh, probably at a workshop on Dalry Road just before 1900.

The Topography of Memory

At the Edinburgh College of Art there was a series of conversations about the inter-relationships of artistic practices, embodied experiences, and the entangled nodes of memory in landscapes which they are sustained by and sustain:

Angela McClanahan began our journey exploring relationships between archaeological / anthropological theory and the practices of land-art, starting us along Roman Roads, around Robert Smithson’s Spiral Jetty, and entangled with the lines of Tim Ingold’s writing.

Craig Coulthard discussed with Neil Mulholland some of his earlier works, before Forest Pitch.  He explained how aspects of the work had been influenced by an experience of the archaeological excavation of lines of post holes, and that while the pitch would be reclaimed by natural processes, he was aware that there would be a similar arrangement of features on the site of the performance to baffle future archaeologists.

Angus Farquhar spoke with Edward Hollis about NVA’s Speed of Light. Previous NVA works such as The Path, Storr, and Half Life drew heavily on the past culture and heritage of the landscapes they were situated. In contrast, Speed of Light does not engage as directly with the culture and heritage of Arthur’s Seat.  It was purer (‘unspectacular’, with Salisbury Crags deliberately unlit): a collective audience of producers, together which mediated the topography of the hill, movement, energy of their bodies, and light, into something sublime.

Claudia Zeiske spoke of the fantastic walking projects being done by Deveron Arts.  Among these was Slow Marathon with artist Mihret Kebede, which in part responded to a traditional song describing the topography which Huntly sits.  The extent of this basin was walked as a slow marathon on one day by the community, on the next members of the community in Addis Ababa also walked a slow marathon.  Both sets of walkers were tangibly linked by a shoelace exchange…

Inspired, time to go to some favorite landscapes, and run, walk, talk with other people.